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  • LED = Light Emitting Diode

  • It is a “Solid State” (i.e., electronic) light source, thus its low power consumption.

  • It is a robust and rugged design that does not induce nor is it affected by vibrations or external magnetic sources. 

  • When an electrical charge is applied to an LED, electronic transitions occur within it and as a result, Photons (i.e., Light) are emitted.

  • These devices have been in the market for over 20 years. 

  • LED Lamp = A light source which contains a numbers of LED’s designed to substitute a similar device in size and light output. Examples include devices for the substitution of Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Lamps.


Illustration of a typical cross section of a High Power Light Emitting Diode of the type use in the new LED type Lamps

Illustration of the Electro-Physical Effects occurring within the semi conductive material which compose the Light Emitting Diodes



There have been significant developments in the lighting industry. These have introduced into the market many new energy efficient products. These new developments and technologies constitute significant improvements over other existing technologies all of which provide a monumental savings of energy due to their extremely high efficiency.

Foremost among these products are LED Lighting Technology. We now have myriad of new LED Lamps, which can substitute practically any Incandescent of Florescent Lamp already in use. LED technology continues to change and evolve very quickly. New generations of LED devices can become available up to twice per year.

There are new LED Lamps, which can substitute the most common lamp found in any Commercial or Industrial applications in the USA market.  These are the 48” long (nominal length) Fluorescent Lamps.

These fluorescent Lamps are the T-12, T-8 and T-5 Lamps. The “T” means that it is a “Tubular” style Lamp and the numbers “12”, “8” or the “5” express the amount of 8Ths its diameter has. Thus, a T-8 Lamps has eight ea 8Ths on an inch in diameter, which equals to 1” total. The idea behind the changing in diameter corresponded to the effort in the fluorescent lamp industry in obtaining a more efficient lamp, but this technology has already been stretched to its apparent limit.

The LED Lamps are available in several colors, these are the “white” family of colors. These colors are designated as “Color Temperatures” and are expressed in ºKelvin. The higher the temperature, the “whiter” is the light produced by the lamp.


Quoting a Department of Energy (DOE) statement, “The U.S. Department of Energy and its partners are working to accelerate advances in solid-state lighting; a pivotal emerging technology that promises to fundamentally alter lighting in the future.

No other lighting technology offers as much potential to save energy and enhance the quality of our building environments, contributing to our nation's energy and climate change solutions.”

The industry has been quickly moving toward the use and manufacture of LED Lighting Lamps of all sizes, mostly for the replacement of the T-12, T-8 and the T-5 Lamps) and incandescent lamps of all sizes.




Close-up sample photograph of a “tubular” LED type Lamp

Sample photograph of one of the many "screw on" configurations of new LED type Lamps

There are several very important key benefits inherent to the use of LED type Lamps vs. Fluorescent Lamps and/or Incandescent Lamps of any type; these can be summarized as follows:

    1. The LED lamps provide unmatched energy efficiency as expressed in their Lumens/Watt output.(See Special Note below)
    2. Since the LED lamps last longer, their maintenance costs over their lifespan will be far lower than the Fluorescent or HID lamps they replace.
    3. The LED lamps do not require ballasts (Magnetic or Electronic) this alone takes a big energy-wasting culprit from the energy equation.
    4. By Eliminating the Ballasts, a significant amount of Energy is also saved on the power consumption of the Air Conditioning equipment, which serves the illuminated space. The heat generated by them is part of the design criteria for sizing the proper A/C for any space. Thus, eliminating the ballasts will also contribute in lowering the energy consumption of the A/C System.
    1. Environmental Laws regulate the disposal of the ecologically unfriendly Phosphors, Mercury and other Heavy Metals used in the manufacture Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. They require special permits and procedures as well as special disposal dumps. None of these measures are required with the eventual disposal on any LED type Lamps.
    2. LED Lamps emit no Ultraviolet (UV) Light. This avoids heath concerns to humans, the deteriorating effects of the same on nearby materials. An extra adder is that they do not attract mosquitoes.
    3. There electromagnetic noise and audible noise associated with Fluorescent Ballasts are eliminated.
    1. LED Lamps provide a higher Color Rendering Index (CRI) and Higher Color Temperatures. This relates to Optimal White Light.
    2. The light output of the LED Lamps is easier to control as they produce a more diffuse light rather than point source light source produced by other Lamps, This relates to less glare and a more uniform light distribution.
    3. LED Lamps are normally manufactured in polycarbonate enclosures (.e.g., the commonly know tubular Lamps) not inside Glass envelopes as fluorescent lamps are, this is a significant safety advantage in their handling.
    1. LED Lamps operate lower temperatures than the lamps they substitute. This relates to a much longer “life expectancy” in their operation.
    2. By having a longer life expectancy, the costs of maintaining any lighting system illuminated by LED Lamps will be considerably lower.
    1. LED Lamps are “Instant On” light sources.
    2. LED Lamps are readably dimmable.
    3. LED Lamps operate well at low temperatures.
    4. Because of their low power consumption and the lack of the need of using ballasts, LED Lamps are easier to control in a myriad of ways and with many devices.
    5. The light output of LED Lamps is easier to control in order to provide improved light uniformity both indoors and outdoors.

SPECIAL NOTE: It is important to take into consideration that the observations mentioned in this section apply to many of the best Lamps in the market but not to all. Your Energy Savings Consultant will be able to help you with the selection of the best Lamps for your needs.




GE award winning “Evolve” Model LED type Outdoor Light Fixture

All of the benefits of LED Lamps and Lighting expressed on the “Indoor Section” mentioned above apply as well to this section.

We have included below a sample comparison of LED Street Lighting applications. The photographs below show the difference in the same street section with a before and after photos. In Street Photo No.1, the roadway is illuminated using High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps, in the Street Photo No.2, the same roadway is being illuminated using LED Lamps and custom designed fixtures for them (Photos courtesy of GE Lighting).

This dramatic change is achieved using the same amount of poles and fixtures. When LED Lamps are used, the entire installation consumes less overall wattage while improving the overall Illumination level Foot-Candles (FC), the Uniformity Ratio (i.e., the illumination levels ratio between bright areas and dark areas within the illuminated section) is significantly improved. 

Also, the overall Color Rendering Index (CRI) is much better. The CRI becomes very important as it relates to safety, face and image recognition and a much better resolution for Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) in security monitoring applications.

All HID light sources have a significant lumen (i.e.., light output) depreciation and a lower lamp life expectancy, they normally need to be replaced at 2 to 4 year intervals. When LED lights are used, the lumen output is significantly maintained during its life which is usually equal of more that 50,000 hours of operation (equivalent to a 10 year or more life expectancy). When both the energy and maintenance labor cost are added, they create a very significance difference cost in favor of LED type Lighting.


Street Photo No.1, Sample street illuminated using common HPS Lamps, notice the
Low Color Rendition and the Non-Uniform dark and bright spots within the illuminated area.

Street Photo No.2, This is the same street section as above but this time the illumination
is being provided by the use of LED Lamps and custom designed fixtures.

These are some of the many new much more energy efficient solutions for different outdoor lighting applications using LED Lamps.

Again, there are no silver bullets. Each client’s needs have to be thoroughly evaluated in order to design and recommend the optimal lighting efficiency applications for their particular circumstances.

These can be achieved and maximized by complementing the use of several of the many technologies and possible solutions to each situation including, but not necessarily being limited to:  Lamp Type, Lamp Sizes, Fixture Quantities, Power Sources, Light Control Devices, Light and Daylight Sensors, Occupancy Sensors, Intelligent Building Management Systems, etc.


Another significant development in Lighting Systems Technology is the use of Induction type Lighting Fixtures and Lamps. These are some highlights of these systems:

Principles of Operation for Induction Lighting


Sample Photographs of Induction Lighting Lamps




  •  There are no electrodes or filaments on the Lamps


  • Ultra long life (100,000 Hrs or more) achieved for these lamps and fixtures.


  • All components operate at substantially lower temperatures.


  • System has an overall High Energy Efficiency.


  • There is no flickering of the Lamps, also a cause of the “Stroboscopic Effect”.


  • The System has no operation noise.


  • Instant ON feature, means that light can be switched ON or OFF with ease.


  • High operational reliability and nearly maintenance free operation.


  • Very efficient in applications where long burning hours are required.


  • Good Color Rendering Index (CRI).


  • Suitable for Security and Safety Lighting applications




For a no-obligation visit by a knowledgeable professional and further orientation, please contact us at:

About Us
Solar Photovoltaic Systems
What you need to know about Solar PV Energy in Puerto Rico!
Wind Energy
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